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    General_Lee

    Bar Exams and the Darkies Who Take Them

     Should would-be lawyers be required to pass a Bar Exam after graduating from law school
    before being admitted to practice law? Of course they should, I think would be most people’s
    reaction. It’s the final hurdle that a would-be lawyer must jump to prove that he learned enough in
    school to be at least a minimally competent lawyer. ‘Got to maintain the integrity of the profession’
    most lawyers would say.

    But there’s a problem, you see: Black law graduates pass the exam at less than half the rate
    of white law graduates. Even though they have completed law school, they can’t pass the test at the
    same rate as whites. Gotta be some kind of racism built into the test, right? Or could it be
    something else? Something whose name dare not be mentioned . . . .

    State Bar Exam Tripping Blacks
    AFTER THE PAPER CHASE
    Failure Rate Of Law School Graduates Brings Up Troubling
    Questions
    February 5, 1989|By Ramsey Campbell of The Sentinel Staff
    Eight of 10 law school graduates breeze through The Florida Bar examination on their first try,
    making the test one of the easiest in the country to pass - at least for white graduates. But for many blacks the state's Bar exam is an impenetrable barrier to the legal profession.

    While few states keep figures on how readily black law school graduates enter the legal profession,
    Littlejohn said what little is known is alarming. In doing research for a forthcoming book, Lawyers of Color, Littlejohn and co-author Leonard Rubinowitz, a Northwestern University law professor, found:

    - In 1972, all 41 blacks failed the Georgia Bar exam even though the group included graduates from such prestigious law schools as Harvard, Yale and Columbia.

    - The passing rate for blacks who took the Alabama Bar exam is 20 percent compared to 70 percent
    overall. In Ohio the passing rate for blacks ranged from 27 percent to 43 percent while the passing
    rate for whites ranged from 75 percent to 88 percent.

    - In Pennsylvania, a committee of the state Bar association concluded that black law school graduates were being discriminated against after discovering that the passing rate for blacks in the 1971 state Bar exam was 25 percent compared to an overall 81 percent.

    In California, the first-time passing rates for white law school graduates is about 70 percent; for
    blacks it is 35 percent, according to state Bar officials.

    L. Orin Slagle, an FSU law professor, said, because a greater percentage of blacks are in the lower
    quarter of law school classes, he would anticipate a lower first-time passing rate on The Florida Bar
    exam. But Slagle noted that, although more blacks with substandard admission test scores enter law school, black graduates meet the same academic requirements as white graduates.
    Rahim Reed, assistant dean for minority students at the UF law school, said, ''If you have two
    students, one black and one white, and they both do well in law school, but one of them can't pass
    the Bar exam or has to take it repeatedly . . . well, there's a problem. But without the statistics you'd never know there's a problem to begin with.''

    Lawrence Mathews, chairman of the Florida Board of Bar Examiners, said it is tragic for law schools
    to accept students with below-standard scores on admission tests and allow them to graduate without warning them of the odds against quick admission to the Bar. Mathews believes that minority students had more difficulty handling the psychological stress of taking the Bar exam. Programs in a few other states that address that stress, which some say is worsened with the knowledge that their failure rate is high, have shown some success improving passing rates.

    Florida Bar President Rutledge Liles said he is surprised by the low passing rate for blacks and is at
    a loss to explain it. Although Liles said he could quarrel with the scientific accuracy of the Sentinel's
    survey, he said the Bar had no statistics of its own. ''All I know is that the test results have nothing to do with race,'' he said. ''They are graded anonymously, and it is the same test for everybody. ''I think we need more black lawyers. I'd like to know what the problem is,'' he added.

    The Sentinel's survey was based on black graduates of the FSU and UF law schools. Their names
    came from university computer printouts given to the Sentinel by members of black student
    associations at the law schools, which use the lists to keep contact with alumni. Although association members said they believe that the lists are the most complete available of black graduates, they could not be certain that all names were included.

    University officials refused to release names of graduates, citing student privacy laws.
    Although Bar applicants also must pass a background examination, of 2,600 people who applied to
    the Bar between October 1986 and September 1987, only 11 eventually were denied admittance for that reason. The Bar keeps no statistics on how many of the state's 45,000 lawyers are black.

    Rodney Gregory, a Jacksonville lawyer who is president of the Florida Chapter of the National Bar
    Association, a voluntary and primarily black organization, said he has pushed without success to
    have Florida Bar officials collect data about black lawyers. He said the best guess is that there are
    between 700 and 1,000 black lawyers in the state.

    'Justice is blind to color'

    It was former Florida Chief Justice B. K. Roberts, now in private practice in Tallahassee, who first
    told Bar examiners in the mid-1970s to delete racial information from applications. The 15 members of the Florida Board of Bar Examiners, which oversees admission to the Bar, are creened andnominated by The Florida Bar.

    ''I didn't want to make a distinction between white or black; then people could say there was
    prejudice. Justice is blind to color,'' Roberts said.
    He was the justice who wrote the majority opinion in 1957 denying the late Virgil Hawkins, a black
    from Leesburg, admission to the segregated UF law school.
    Although state universities have been integrated since Hawkins gave up his fight and left Florida to
    go to a New England law school in the late 1950s, black law school students are relatively few. The
    University of Florida has about 1,200 students in its law school; about 60 are black. At Florida State
    about 20 of the 230 law students are black.
    Liles and Bar officials charge that the multiplechoice and essay questions that make up the exam -
    and determine which law school graduates may become lawyers - are designed to test minimal
    knowledge of the law. But others, black lawyers as well as law professors, have questioned the
    purpose and motivation behind the exam.
    ''The only purpose of the Bar exam is to keep the number of attorneys in the state down,'' said Tampa
    lawyer Barbara Pittman, a black 1986 FSU law school graduate who passed the exam on her first try.
    ''It doesn't separate good attorneys from bad ones.''
    David Self II, a 1982 UF law school graduate and the last black member of the prestigious University
    of Florida Law Review, agreed. The Review is a law school publication that presents scholarly
    papers on legal issues. Usually only top law school students are invited to participate in publishing
    the Review.
    ''I know bad lawyers who pass it and good lawyers who don't,'' said Self, who also passed the Bar
    exam on his first try.
    Another black UF law school graduate, who has been trying to pass the exam since 1983, said he
    believes that black law school graduates face discrimination.
    ''If you are black, the odds are you are going to fail the Bar exam at least once, maybe twice.
    Something's wrong, but nobody wants to talk about it openly,'' said the man, who talked on the
    condition that he not be identified because of the stigma of failing the exam. ''No one wants to admit
    they can't pass the Bar exam. There's too much humiliation.''
    Florida began Bar exams in 1920s
    The Florida Bar exam consists of a series of tests: A two-day general Bar exam is given twice a year,
    and a shorter multistate exam is given three times annually. The general exam includes a series of
    essay questions, and the multistate portion includes a two-hour multiple choice section about ethics.
    The first written Bar exam was administered by Massachusetts in 1855, and each state now has its
    own version.
    A Bar exam has been given in Florida since the early 1920s but was required of all prospective
    lawyers only since the middle 1950s. At that time the Florida Board of Bar Examiners was formed
    and the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes (now Florida A&M University)
    began graduating students from its law school. That law school was closed in 1966, when the FSU
    law school was established.
    FSU law school professor Robert Kennedy, who called the Bar ''a land of myths and fogs'' in a
    critical study that appeared in the Florida State University Law Review, said the Bar exam does not
    do what Bar officials say it does.
    ''There is simply no evidence that those who are licensed will provide at least minimally adequate
    service . . . ,'' Kennedy wrote.
    The Bar exam ignores poverty law, international law, labor law, employment discrimination law,
    patents, copyrights and environmental law, among other important categories, Kennedy said recently.
    The exam concentrates on legal details and filing deadlines that would be more fitting to a law clerk
    or notary than a practicing lawyer, he said.
    The disproportionate number of black law school graduates failing Bar exam has led to legal
    challenges in other states, such as Georgia and Alabama.
    Those challenges have not been successful. One reason is that most states - like Florida - do not keep
    statistics on race necessary to document discrimination.
    ''It's an age-old problem. There are a number of studies of the problem but nothing conclusive,'' said
    James Cole, president of the National Bar Association, a group of 12,000 lawyers, judges and law
    students. The voluntary Bar association, based in Washington, D.C, was created as an alternative in
    1925, when blacks were not allowed into the ABA.
    3% of nation's lawyers are blacks
    Fewer blacks are in legal profession than in almost any other profession, according to government
    statistics.
    About 12 percent of the nation's population is black, but blacks comprise just 3 percent of the
    nation's 650,000 lawyers and judges.By comparison, 7.2 percent of the country's mathematicians and
    computer scientists are black, 5 percent of the executives and 3.7 percent of the engineers and
    physicians. Only advertising, of the major professions, according to the government data, has a lower
    percentage of blacks.
    But in the past 10 years a few states have examined the problem.
    About 10 years ago California began extensive monitoring of Bar passage rates by race at the
    insistence of minority groups, said Jim Tippin, director of the California Board of Bar Examiners.
    In California, 70 percent of whites pass the bar exam on the first try, compared with 35 percent of
    blacks

    Officials are looking at several ways to increase the number of black law school graduates who pass
    the Bar, including adding types of questions to the exam and allowing more time for completion,
    revising law school curriculum and raising entrance requirements, said Stephen Klein, a consultant
    working with California Bar examiners on minority performance.
    There is no simple solution, he said, because black students often come to law school without the
    same educational background as whites.

    ''It is difficult to make up for past deficiencies in the three years of law school,'' he said. ''It may be
    that they minorities just need more time.''
    Those prior educational disadvantages, coupled with high anxiety about taking the Bar exams, can
    become a self-fulfilling prophecy, according to the book, Lawyers of Color, being written by
    Littlejohn and Rubinowitz.
    Supplemental Bar preparation programs for minorities in several states have met with the most
    success in helping minorities pass the Bar, Littlejohn said.
    An Illinois program uses volunteer minority lawyers who have passed the state's Bar. It concentrates
    on study methods and exam-taking techniques rather than substantive law taught in established Bar
    review courses. It also offers practical advice about overcoming pre-exam stress.
    A New York program offered since 1978 operates on the premise that ''failure for many, if not most,
    minority Bar applicants can be attributed more to psychological than academic difficulties.'' The six-
    week course concentrates on study methods and exam-writing techniques and provides individual
    counseling, Littlejohn said.
    New Jersey also has begun monitoring black Bar exam performance but statistics are confidential.
    Still, Sam Uberman, chief of the New Jersey Bar Examination Unit, said the state has found the
    information useful in making changes in its exam and testing procedures.
    ''We can't lower our standards,'' he said, ''but we have an obligation to continually look at what we
    are doing to see if another way might be fairer.''
    An informal survey by The Orlando Sentinel focusing on 225 black graduates of the University of
    Florida and Florida State University law schools - most since 1980 - shows that seven of 10 were
    not admitted to the Bar within a year of graduation.
    About a third of the black law school graduates never have been allowed to practice law in Florida.
    Bar officials do not keep statistics on minority performance and refused to release information on
    individuals who pass. The survey consisted of comparing the names of black law graduates to the
    roster of new lawyers published each fall by the Bar. Law school officials say the vast majority of
    graduates take the Bar exam immediately.
    Florida Bar officials defend the exam as necessary to make sure that lawyers have a minimum
    understanding of the law, but the disproportionate failure rate of black law school graduates in state
    Bar exams throughout the country has raised troubling questions the legal profession is debating:

    - Are Bar exams necessary?
    - Do state Bar associations and law schools have any obligation to find ways to improve the rate of
    blacks passing the exams without changing Bar admission standards?
    - Most importantly: Are law schools graduating blacks who are not competent to be lawyers, or are
    black law school graduates being discriminated against by the legal establishment?
    Florida Bar and law school officials say they are surprised by blacks' low pass rate, but few people
    have ready answers. In part, that is because The Florida Bar keeps no statistics by race, and neither
    the state Bar nor the universities have studied the problem.
    At the University of Florida law school, the largest of the two state-run law schools, 31 percent - 43
    of 138 - black law school graduates since 1980 were admitted to The Florida Bar within a year of
    graduation.
    Sixty-two percent - 86 of those 138 graduates - have become members of Florida's legal profession.
    Although some might have gone to other states to practice law, of the 52 black UF law school
    graduates who have not been admitted to the Bar, 33 remain in the state. Some have given up hope
    of becoming lawyers and have new careers.
    The situation is equally bleak at the smaller FSU law school. Of 84 black law graduates there, 36
    were admitted to the Bar within a year of graduation, and 18 have yet to pass the state Bar although
    most still live in Florida.
    ''That's tragic,'' said Edward Littlejohn, a law professor at Wayne State University In Detroit, Mich.,
    and a consultant who has looked into minority relations in the legal profession for the American Bar
    Association.
    Littlejohn said that since the 1970s, when law schools began graduating blacks in significant
    numbers, blacks consistently have failed Bar exams at substantially higher rates than whites.
    He said the situation is a ''critical concern'' for the legal profession nationally.
    A legal system in which blacks are underepresented will be less inclined to tackle civil rights issues
    and less watchful of the rights of individual blacks before the courts, he said.
    And, Littlejohn said, lawyers make up the bulk of state legislatures and Congress.
    ''Being a lawyer is more than being a member of a profession,'' he said. ''We are a nation of laws, and
    lawyers write and enforce those laws.''
    Research turns up alarming information
    http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/...ar-black-law/3
    Last edited by General_Lee; 4 Jul 2013, 14:15.
  • Fred O'Malley
    I AM THE PALE HORSEMAN
    • Apr 2013
    • 173309

    #2
    Competency must be measurable and minimum standards set to assure the public gets some small chance at justice. The deck is already stacked against the defendant in any case, so knowledgeable representation is a must. The question involves far more than niggers' feelings and inability.

    Unequal things can never be made equal in their natural state. But, the groovy thing about that is that only a nigger would hire a nigger lawyer, and they need to succumb to the bias of the system anyway. They all deserve life sentences. No, I'm not prejudiced, I'm just being honest and non-PC.
    Government is a DISEASE - FREEDOM is the CURE
    Integrity is doing the right thing when no one else is watching.
    “Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth — more than ruin, more even than death. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid … Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man.”Bertrand Russell, Why Men Fight

    Comment

    • WitchesChild
      Pagan Heart
      • May 2013
      • 1584

      #3
      No Coon Left Behind.

      Comment

      • notmenomore
        Member
        • May 2013
        • 96

        #4
        Officials are looking at several ways to increase the number of black law school graduates who pass
        the Bar, including adding types of questions to the exam and allowing more time for completion,
        revising law school curriculum and raising entrance requirements, said Stephen Klein, a consultant
        working with California Bar examiners on minority performance.
        There is no simple solution, he said, because black students often come to law school without the
        same educational background as whites.

        ''It is difficult to make up for past deficiencies in the three years of law school,'' he said. ''It may be
        that they minorities just need more time.''
        Anything, just ANYTHING, to still try after all these many, many years to bend nature and reality into what it is NOT.

        The example here is to (re-)consider dealing with the problem on the front end rather than on the back end. Since, it's obvious that all minorities admitted to law school will be graduated therefrom, then questions of the failure rates of bar exams can be addressed by reducing the number of incompetents admitted in the first place. Of course this was the initial egalitarian approach to increasing minorities in the profession. If the embarrassment of high bar exam failure rates is to be reduced by simply having less failure material take the exams, then the outcomes will be exactly what was held "unsatisfactory" and "unacceptable" in the first place.

        Also interesting are the textbook examples of dual code found in the high-scoring black lawyers statements:


        ''The only purpose of the Bar exam is to keep the number of attorneys in the state down,'' said Tampa
        lawyer Barbara Pittman, a black 1986 FSU law school graduate who passed the exam on her first try.
        ''It doesn't separate good attorneys from bad ones.''

        ''I know bad lawyers who pass it and good lawyers who don't,'' said Self, who also passed the Bar exam on his first try.
        These lawyers are smart enough to understand full well why their racial brothers/sisters fail the Bar at multiple rates to Whites, but their own group/tribal loyalties require them to generate specious excuses for the poor showing. Neither statement fairly addresses the purpose of the bar exams (or for that matter any other professional/trade accreditations): the attempt of government to ensure the public, who will be hiring these characters, that they have at least been held to a minimal standard and have demonstrated a passing grade. Not that complicated, itz.

        What's clear here is that the initial "affirmative action" (denying seats to Whites in law school entering classes in preference to unqualified blacks) has only pushed the problem down the pike a bit. The social choice now becomes to either admit the incompetents to the profession and accept the disastrous results that will surely incur, or to accept the "unacceptable", which is a percentage level of representation less than the general population percentage.

        Today, it's all about ensuring that in every area of life all the non-existent, it's-only-a-social-construct races, ethnicities, tribes, nations, and what-have-yous, the percentage of representation in what ever field or area is being scrutinized is exactly the same as the general population percentage. It is the Rosetta Stone, the Holy Grail of egalitarianism, the be-all and end-all of liberal thought, the final purpose of all social justice and right doing. It is the one requirement that cannot tolerate and will not brook any fact, logic, reason, or cause that in any way might possibly impugn its final truth and victory. Any evidence, however slight, of "imbalance" between general population percentages and the percentages of the sub-group being examined is nothing more or less than prima facie evidence that the foul stench of bigotry and racism is about...

        Methinks these all-too-good lawyers who will solve the "problem" of uneven and unequal rates of passage of their fine bar exams will be kicking this can down the road for a long, long, long, long time.

        Comment

        • Guest's Avatar
          General_Lee

          #5
          Another black UF law school graduate, who has been trying to pass the exam since 1983, said he believes that black law school graduates face discrimination. ''If you are black, the odds are you are going to fail the Bar exam at least once, maybe twice. Something's wrong, but nobody wants to talk about it openly,'' said the man, who talked on the condition that he not be identified because of the stigma of failing the exam. ''No one wants to admit they can't pass the Bar exam. There's too much humiliation.''
          Been taking the bar exam for 30 years! Still hasn't passed? Humiliation? Yeah, I guess so. But under the heading of giving the devil his due, you've got to admire this guy's persistence. I think I would have moved on. 28 years ago.

          The bar exam is not any harder than the exams you take in law school. In fact, they're the same damn thing. If you passed the property law exam in law school, there's absolutely no reason why you wouldn't pass the property law section of the bar exam. Same with principle with contracts, constitutional law, procedure - - and all the other law school subjects. You've already been tested on these subjects and found to be proficient in that area of the law.

          You might wonder then, how could a person possibly make it all the way through law school but not be able to pass the bar exam? Here's my theory: Law school exams, like the bar exam, are graded anonymously. The professor has no idea whose paper he is grading. After the grades are assigned in law school though, the professor is then given the identity of the test taker and the professor can add or subtract a limited number points from the initial grade. These extra points are to be given or taken away for things like participation in class, preparedness, familiarity with the assigned material, absences &c. The grading spread in law school is VERY tight. Only 3 or 4 points separate the top student from someone in the 3rd quartile. So, dollars to doughnuts, these niggers who can't pass the bar exam are actually failing or barely passing in law school. Then, when the prof. gets to do the adjustments, the niggers are all given the maximum extra points for 'class participation' because the school doesn't want to be seen as failing out all the niggers. A little 'affirmative action', on the down-low, as it were to keep up appearances. But on the bar exam, there are no such extra points. The grade you get is the grade you get. And it's final.

          That is also my theory on how the HNIC got to be editor-in-chief of the Harvard Law Review. He was probably a good law student who got pushed to the very top of his class by getting the maximum extra points added to his otherwise slightly above-average grades.
          Last edited by General_Lee; 5 Jul 2013, 01:12. Reason: Misspelt a wurd.

          Comment

          • Fred O'Malley
            I AM THE PALE HORSEMAN
            • Apr 2013
            • 173309

            #6
            Social promotions might work in PC academia, but when the rubber meets the road, being inept at your chosen profession means that you go hungry, as it should be in the natural world. Fudging the numbers for niggers does them no favors, the real world is competitive and failing to compete in the real world means failure, no matter what the scared assed teacher said on your report cards.
            Government is a DISEASE - FREEDOM is the CURE
            Integrity is doing the right thing when no one else is watching.
            “Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth — more than ruin, more even than death. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid … Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man.”Bertrand Russell, Why Men Fight

            Comment

            • Guest's Avatar
              General_Lee

              #7
              Originally posted by Fred O'Malley View Post
              Fudging the numbers for niggers does them no favors . . .
              No, it doesn't. And it does a disservice to the public who rely on institutions and government agencies to set standards.

              When you boil it all down, that's always the problem with niggers: Standards. Standards of behavior, standards of proficiency in a subject, college entrance standards, job performance standards. Niggers can't meet the standards, therefore the standards have to meet them.

              Comment

              • Fred O'Malley
                I AM THE PALE HORSEMAN
                • Apr 2013
                • 173309

                #8
                You have to remember the real disadvantage niggers have is first that they can't comprehend anything they can't count on their fingers, and secondly, being born at a disadvantage then teeched by simeons through grade schools and having to understand non-ebonic speaking white proffs in college.

                They never had a chance, the disparity is in their genes and they can never hope to escape its downfall. Their lives are hopeless and they should go extinct, and they will if either of two things happen; 1) The kikes come to full power and pull away all their support mechanisms, or 2) We defeat the kikes and take away all their support mechanisms. Either way, they won't be around in 50 years, no matter what happens, they do not control their own destiny.
                Government is a DISEASE - FREEDOM is the CURE
                Integrity is doing the right thing when no one else is watching.
                “Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth — more than ruin, more even than death. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid … Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man.”Bertrand Russell, Why Men Fight

                Comment

                • Hamil
                  Junior Member
                  • Jan 2018
                  • 1

                  #9
                  Re: Bar Exams and the Darkies Who Take Them

                  I am so grateful to this post. You have finely mentioned everything that is there regarding a bar exam. Now, it will be easy for me to start my TestMax LSAT Prep Courses for getting in to a great law school. This post upgraded my information bank with a lot of new things.

                  Comment

                  • Fred O'Malley
                    I AM THE PALE HORSEMAN
                    • Apr 2013
                    • 173309

                    #10
                    Re: Bar Exams and the Darkies Who Take Them

                    This thread demonstrates clearly why Google is spitting into the wind with their PC insanity. If they didn't have absolute control of their market, they would fall flat on their faces.

                    Competency in the private sector markets is essential to survival. Since we must have a place for incompetent people to work, we invented government.
                    Government is a DISEASE - FREEDOM is the CURE
                    Integrity is doing the right thing when no one else is watching.
                    “Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth — more than ruin, more even than death. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid … Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man.”Bertrand Russell, Why Men Fight

                    Comment

                    • reynolds
                      Senior Member
                      • Oct 2018
                      • 1956

                      #11
                      Re: Bar Exams and the Darkies Who Take Them

                      Falling standards to accommodate negroes. I read that 45% more of the 'A's are given out today compared to just 60 years ago. Back then they would have flunked. And back then that was part of the problem of the "Civil Rights" legislation - to bring everyone up to par, and to he same level of comprehension. DUH I is an A student brother!

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